Microclimate frame for paintings on canvas exposed to extreme fluctuations in relative humidity
Keywords:Tide mill, Oil paintings on canvas, Fluctuations in relative humidity, Microclimate frame, Microclimate, Silica gel
Ecomuseu Municipal do Seixal is aiming to exhibit three oil portraits on canvas from the 19th century in the Tide Mill of Corroios. Due to its location, intrinsic to its function of Tide Mill, the building exhibits environmental conditions characterized by severe fluctuations in temperature and relative humidity. This work aims to propose a model of microclimate frame that offers a solution for the continued preservation of the three paintings. The frame’s design was chosen based on the study of the environmental conditions (temperature and relative humidity) of the exhibition room at the Tide Mill as well as in the results of an in situ experiment involving model frames. The proposal here described, a microclimate frame with silica gel as buffering material, considered the designs presented in the literature, the individual needs of the paintings and, finally, the available budget.
 Van Duin, P., 'Climate effects on museum objects: the need for monitoring and analysis', Conservation Perspectives, The GCI Newsletter 29(2) (2014) 13-15, http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications_resources/newsletters/29_2/climate_effects.html. (acesso em 2018-2-10).
 Michalski, S., 'Relative humidity: a discussion of correct/incorrect values', in Historical Perspectives on Preventive Conservation, ed. S. Staniforth, The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles (2013) 165-168.
 Mecklenburg, M., 'Microclimates and moisture induced damage to paintings', in Museum Microclimates, eds. T. Padfield & K. Borchersen, National Museum of Denmark, Denmark (2007) 19-25.
 Toishi, K.; Gotoh, T., 'A note on the movement of moisture between the components in a sealed package', Studies in Conservation 39 (1994) 265-271, https://doi.org/10.1179/sic.19184.108.40.2065.
 Mecklenburg, M. F.; McCormick-Goodhart, M.; Tumosa, C. S., 'Investigation into the deterioration of paintings and photographs using computerized modeling of stress development', Journal of American Institute for Conservation 33(2) (1994) 153-170, https://doi.org/10.1179/019713694806124739.
 Weintraub, S., 'Demystifying silica gel', in Object Specialty Group Postprints, vol. 9, ed. V. Greene & P. Griffin, The American Institute for Conservation of Historic & Artistic Works, Washington (2002) 169-194.
 Richard, M., 'The benefits and disadvantages of adding silica gel to microclimate packages for panel paintings', in Museum Microclimates - Contributions to the Copenhagen Conference, 19-23 November 2007, eds. T. Padfield & K. Borchersen, The National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen (2007) 237-243.
 Wadum, J., 'Microclimate Boxes for Panel Paintings', in The Structural Conservation of Panel Paintings: Proceedings of a Symposium at the J. Paul Getty Museum, 24-28 April 1995, ed. K. Dardes & A. Rothe, Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles (1998) 497-524.
 Hackney, S., 'Framing for conservation at the Tate Gallery', The Conservator 14 (1990) 44-52, https://doi.org/10.1080/01410096.1990.9995056.
 Glaznev I.; Alekseev, V.; Salnikova, I.; Gordeeva, L.; Shilova, I.; Elepov, B.; Aristov, Y., 'ARTIC-1: A new humidity buffer for showcases', Studies in Conservation 54 (2009) 1-16, https://doi.org/10.1179/sic.2009.54.3.1.
 Camuffo, D.; Sturaro, G.; Valentino A., 'Showcases: A really effective means of protecting artworks?', Thermochimica Acta 365 (2000) 65-77, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6031(00)00614-6.
 López-Aparicio, S.; Grontoft, T.; Odlyha, M.; Dahlin, E.; Mottner, P.; Thickett, D.; Ryhl-Svendsen, M.; Schmidbauer, N.; Scharff, M., 'Measurement of organic and inorganic pollutants in microclimate frames for paintings', e-Preservation Science 7 (2010) 59-70.
 Dahlin, E. (ed.), PROPAINT - Improved Protection of Paintings During Exhibition, Storage and Transit. Final Activity Report, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller (2010).
 Michalski, S., 'Risk analysis of backing boards for paintings: damp climates vs cold climates', in Minimo Intervento Conservativo nel Restauro dei Dipinti, II Prato, Padua, (2005) 21-27.
 Toledo, F.; Sehn, M.; Sousa Júnior, M.; Brazolin, S.; Hackney, S., 'The use of glass boxes to protect modern paintings in warm humid museums', in Museum Microclimates - Contributions to the Copenhagen Conference, 19-23 November 2007, eds. T. Padfield & K. Borchersen, , The National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen (2007) 261-266.
 Townsend, J. H.; Thomas, J.; Hackney, S.; Lerwill, A., 'The benefits and risks of anoxic display for colorants', in Conservation and Access: Contributions to the London Congress 15-19 September 2008, eds. D. Saunders, J. H. Townsend & S. Woodcock, International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, London (2008) 76-81, https://doi.org/10.1179/sic.2008.53.Supplement-1.76.
 Hackney, S., 'The evolution of a conservation framing policy at Tate' in Museum Microclimates - Contributions to the Copenhagen Conference, 19-23 November 2007, eds. T. Padfield & K. Borchersen, , The National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen (2007) 229-235.
 Sozzani, L., 'An economical design for a microclimate vitrine for paintings using the picture frame as the primary housing', Journal for the American Institute for Conservation 36(2) (1997) 95-107, https://doi.org/10.1179/019713697806373163.
 Thomson, G., 'Relative humidity - Variation with temperature in a case containing wood', Studies in Conservation 9 (1964) 153-169, https://doi.org/10.1179/sic.1964.025.
 Toishi, K., 'Humidity control in a closed package', Studies in Conservation 4 (1959) 81-87, https://doi.org/10.1179/sic.1959.018.
 Thomson, G., The Museum Environment, 2nd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford (1986), https://doi.org/10.1016/c2013-0-01226-1.
 Melin, C. B., 'A presentation of a new experimental test method for humidity buffers - a comparison of two silica gels, Artsorb and Prosorb', in Museum Microclimates -- Abstracts of Posters at the Copenhagen Conference, 19-23 November 2007, eds. T. Padfield & K. Borchersen, , The National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen (2007) 9-11.
 Waller, C. 'Art sorb', in Long Life for Art, http://www.cwaller.de/english.htm (acesso em 2015-6-3).
 Lide, D. R. (ed.), Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed., CRC Press LLC, Florida (2003).
 Sá, S., 'Analysis and treatment of a nineteenth century portrait, study of Artsorb® and a proposal for a microclimate frame', tese de mestrado, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa (2015), http://hdl.handle.net/10362/16442.
 Reis, D., 'The materials, technique, conservation treatment and after-care of Interior de um Convento', tese de mestrado, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa (2011), http://hdl.handle.net/10362/6670.
 Padfield, T.; Berg, H.; Dahlstrøm N.; Rischel, A., 'How to protect glazed pictures from climate insult', in ICOM Committee for Conservation, 13th Triennial Meeting, Rio de Janeiro, 22-27 September 2002: Preprints, ed. R. Vontobel, vol. 1, James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd., London (2002) 80-85.
 Leslie, C., 'The adaptation of a commercial aluminum channel frame to provide a humidity controlled enclosure for a painting', poster, International Institute for Conservation, Canadian Group 12th Annual Conference, Winnipeg (1986).
How to Cite
This work is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium following no commercial or derivatives, provided the original author and source are credited.
Copyright remains with the authors.