Considerations about foxing stains in three paper collections ranging from the 16th to the 20th century
Keywords:Foxing stains, Papermaking, Conservation surveys, MNAA museum, MBP museum, BNP library
Three surveys on the occurrence of foxing stains were carried out on papers dating from 1560 to 1975 in three Portuguese collections. Foxed papers were found to be more intensely and intrusively stained in certain time periods of each collection. Based on historical data and the professional paper conservation expertise, the authors linked the increased occurrence of foxing stains in certain time periods to the new papermaking processes and materials, which began to be introduced in the late 18th century, and in particular to a synergistic effect between three factors: the use of deficient gelatine sizing which began to present a poorer quality and homogeneity, the presence of iron-containing impurities throughout the paper leaf and a distinct absorbency of moisture. Observing batches of morphologically similar papers by using photographic imaging with different types of light sources and incidences, the authors verified that similar papers present similar foxing stains.
 Choi, S., ‘Foxing on paper: a literature review’, Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 46(2) (2007) 137-152, https://doi.org/10.1179/019713607806112378.
 Ligterink, F.; Porck, H.; Smit, W., ‘Foxing stains and discolouration of leaf margins and paper surrounding print ink’, The Paper Conservator 15(1) (1991) 45-52, https://doi.org/10.1080/03094227.1991.9638396.
 Hofenk de Graaff, J., ‘Research into the cause of browning of paper mounted in mats’, in Contributions of the Central Research Laboratory to the Field of Conservation and Restoration, ed. H. Verschoor, M. Jaap, Central Research Laboratory for Objects of Art and Science, Amsterdam (1994) 21-42.
 Eusman, E., ‘Tideline formation in paper objects: cellulose degradation at the wet-dry boundary’, Studies in the History of Art 51 (1995) 11-27.
 Dupont, A., ‘Degradation of cellulose at the wet/dry interface. I: the effect of some conservation treatments on brown lines’, Restaurator 17(1) (1996) 1-12, https://doi.org/10.1515/rest.19188.8.131.52.
 Choisy, P.; Chapelle, A. D. La; Thomas, D.; Egoy, M. D., ‘Non invasive techniques for the investigation of foxing stains on graphic art materials’, Restaurator 18(3) (1997) 131–152, https://doi.org/10.1515/rest.19184.108.40.206.
 Bicchieri, M.; Pappalardo, G.; Romano, F. P.; Cutis, R., ‘Characterization of foxing stains by chemical and spectrometric methods’, Restaurator 22(1) (2001) 1–19, https://doi.org/10.1515/REST.2001.1.
 Rakotonirainy, M.; Dubar, P., ‘Application of bioluminescence ATP measurement for evaluation of fungal viability of foxing spots on old documents’, Luminescence 28(3) (2013) 308-312, https://doi.org/10.1002/bio.2382.
 Balakhnina, I.; Brandt, N.; Chikishev, A.; Pelivanov, I.; Rebrikova, N., ‘Optoacoustic measurements of the porosity of paper samples with foxing’, Applied Physics Letters 101(17) (2012) 174101, http://doi.org/10.1063/1.4761984.
 Rakotonirainy, M.; Benaud, O.; Vilmont, L., ‘Contribution to the characterization of foxing stains on printed books using infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive spectrometry’, International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 101 (2015) 1-7, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2015.02.031.
 Karbowska-berent, J.; Jarmiłko, J.; Czuczko, J., ‘Fungi in fox spots of a drawing by Leon Wyczółkowski ’, Restaurator 35(2) (2014) 159-179, https://doi.org/10.1515/rest-2014-1000.
 Balakhnina, I.; Brandt, N.; Chikishev, A.; Rebrikova, N., ‘Raman microspectroscopy of old paper samples with foxing’, Applied Spectroscopy 68(4) (2014) 495-501, https://doi.org/10.1366/13-07222.
 Piñar, G.; Tafer, H; Sterflinger, K.; Pinzari, F., ‘Amid the possible causes of a very famous foxing: molecular and microscopic insight into Leonardo da Vinci's self-portrait’, Environmental Microbiology Reports 7(6) (2015) 849-859, https://doi.org/10.1111/1758-2229.12313.
 Ardelean, E.; Melniciuc-Puică, N., ’Conservation of paper documents damaged by foxing’, European Journal of Science and Theology 9(2) (2013) 117-124, url: http://www.ejst.tuiasi.ro/Files/37/11_ArdeleanMelniciuc.pdf.
 Modica, A.; Bruno, M.; Di Bella, M.; Alberghina, M.; Brai, M.; Fontana, D.; Tranchina, L., ‘Characterization of foxing stains in early twentieth century photographic and paper materials’, Natural Product Research (2016) 1-10, https://doi.org/ 10.1080/14786419.2016.1180600.
 Sclocchi, M.; Kraková, L.; Pinzari, F.; Colaizzi, P.; Bicchieri, M.; Saková, N.; Pangallo, D., ‘Microbial life and death in foxing stain: a suggested mechanism of photographic prints defacement’, Microbial Ecology 73(3) (2017) 815-826, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-016-0913-7.
 Liam, T.; Beckwith, T., ‘Notes on the Causes and Prevention of Foxing in Books’, The Library Quarterly: Information, Community, Policy 5(4) (1935) 407-418, url: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4302211.
 Beadle, C., ‘Chemical residues in papers’, in Chapters on Papermaking, ed. C. Beadle, Crosby Lockwood and Son, London (1907) 86-101.
 Manso, M; Pessanha, S.; Figueira, F.; Valadas, S.; Guilherme, A.; Afonso, M.; Rocha, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ribeiro, I.; Carvalho, M., ‘Characterisation of foxing stains in eighteenth to nineteenth century drawings using non-destructive techniques’, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 395(7) (2009) 2029-2036, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-009-3142-9.
 Relvas, C.; Figueira, F.; Nunes, M.; Santos, M.; Mourinha, P.; Caldeira, A.T.; Ferreira, T., ‘Characterization of old paper samples exhibiting foxing’, in Science, Technology and Cultural Heritage, Proceedings of the International Congress on Science and Technology for Conservation of Cultural Heritage, ed. Miguel Ángel Rogerio-Candelera, CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, Sevilla (2014) 243-250, ISBN: 978-1-138-02744.
 Nunes, M.; Relvas, C.; Figueira, F.; Campelo, J; Candeias, A.; Caldeira, A.; Ferreira, T., ‘Analytical and microbiological characterization of paper samples exhibiting foxing stains’, Microscopy and Microanalysis 21 (2015) 63-77, https://doi.org/10.1017/S143192761500001X.
 Barrett, T., ‘Analysis of historical paper specimens: Residual metals’, The Paper Conservator 13 (1989) 32–38.
 Bertalan, S., ‘Foxing and reverse foxing: condition problems in modern papers and the role of inorganic additives’, The Book and Paper Group Annual 34 (2015) 13-22.
 Figueira, F.; Afonso, M.; Rocha, A., ‘Levantamento de manchas em desenhos dos sec. XVI-XIX no MNAA’, Museologia 3 (2009) 19-29.
 Matos, M.; Figueira, F.; Ferreira, T., ‘Imaging evaluation of local treatments for foxed papers’, in Proceedings of Intangibility Matters: Intangibility Matters: International conference on the values of tangible, ed. M. Menezes, D. Costa, J. Rodrigues, LNEC, Lisbon (2017) 335-344.
 Barrow, W., ‘Permanence/Durability of the Book-VII. Physical and Chemical Properties of Book Papers, 1507-1949‘, W. J. Barrow Research Laboratory, inc., Virginia (1974), url: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED097886.
 Garlick, K., ‘A brief review of the history of sizing and resizing practices’, The Book and Paper Group Annual 5 (1986), url: https://cool.conservation-us.org/coolaic/sg/bpg/annual/v05/bp05-11.html.
 Barrett, T., ‘European papermaking techniques 1300-1800’, in Paper through Time: Nondestructive Analysis of 14th-through 19th-Century Papers, The University of Iowa, (2014), url: http://paper.lib.uiowa.edu/european.php#stamper.
 Brückle, I., ‘The role of alum in historical papermaking’, Abbey Newsletter 17 (4) (1993), url: http://cool.conservation-us.org/byorg/abbey/an/an17/an17-4/an17-407.html.
 Collings, T.; Milner, D., ‘A new chronology of papermaking technology’, The paper conservator 14 (1990) 58-62, https://doi.org/10.1080/03094227.1990.9638387.
 Valente, A., ‘Changes in print paper during the 19th century’ in Proceedings of the Charleston Library Conference, ed. K.P. Strauch, B.R. Bernhardt & L. Hinds, Indiana (2010) 209-214, http://dx.doi.org/10.5703/1288284314836.
 Wisniak, J., ‘Bleaching - From antiquity to chlorine’, Indian Journal of Chemical Technology 11(6) (2004) 876-887.
 Beazley, K., ‘Mineral fillers in paper’, The Paper Conservator 15 (1991) 17–27.
 Benetti, F.; Marchettini, N.; Atrei, A., ‘ToF-SIMS and XPS study of ancient papers’, Applied Surface Science 257(6) (2011) 2142-2147, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.09.063.
 Rebrikova, N.; Manturovskaya, N., ‘Foxing – a new approach to an old problem’, Restaurator 21(2) (2000) 85-100, https://doi.org/10.1515/REST.2000.85.
 Martínez, A.; Speranza, M.; Ruiz-Dueñas, F.; Ferreira, P.; Camarero, S.; Guillén, F.; Martínez, M.; Gutiérrez, A.; Del Río, J., ‘Biodegradation of lignocellulosics: microbial, chemical, and enzymatic aspects of the fungal attack of lignin’, International Microbiology 8 (2005) 195-204.
 Timár-Balázsi, A., ‘Deterioration of Vegetable Fibers’ in Paper Conservation Course, Review on Paper Chemistry, ed. G. Krist & G. Banik, ICCROM, Rome (1993) 45-47.
 Cain, C.; Miller, B., ‘Proposed classification of foxing’, in American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, Book and Paper Group, 10th Annual Meeting Postprints, American Institute for Conservation, Washington, (1984) 29-30.
 Florian, M., ‘The role of the conidia of fungi in fox spots’, Studies in Conservation 41(2) (1996) 65-75. https://doi.org/10.1179/sic.19220.127.116.11.
 Florian, M., ‘Fungal spots in a book dated 1854 : causative species id and distribution; and time, source, and method of contamination’, The Book and Paper Group Annual 19 (2000) 2–3, url: http://cool.conservation-us.org/coolaic/sg/bpg/annual/v19/bp19-10.html.
 Krstić, D.; Schauperl, Z., ‘Characterization of foxing stains in eighteenth century books.’, HDKBR INFO Magazin 3(3) (2013) 32–39, url: http://hrcak.srce.hr/148794.
 Elston, D., ‘Fluorescence of fungi in superficial and deep fungal infections’ BMC Microbiology 1(21) (2001), https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-1-21.
 Wu, C.; Warren, H., ‘Induced autofluorescence in fungi and its correlation with viability: potential application of fluorescence microscopy’, Phytopathology 74(11) (1984) 1353-1358.
 Valentin, N., ‘Biodeterioration of library materials disinfection methods and new alternatives’, The Paper Conservator 10 (1986) 40-45, https://doi.org/10.1080/03094227.1986.9638530.
How to Cite
This work is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC 4.0) which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium following no commercial or derivatives, provided the original author and source are credited.
Copyright remains with the authors.