Archaeological glass conservation and restoration intervention materials – a literature review
Keywords:Archaeological glass, cleaning materials, adhesives and consolidants, gap-filling materials
AbstractConservation and restoration on archaeological objects in glass often involve the removal of materials from previous restorations and comprise a deep knowledge about present and past methodologies. This article presents a literature survey and critical analysis of the main materials used in the different stages of intervention: cleaning, consolidation, joining fragments and filling gaps. A considerable number of used products was identified, which illustrates the use of various methodologies among professionals from this area. Cleaning methods vary from mechanical methods using a brush (less invasive) to the use of various acidic solutions, some of which can endanger the integrity of objects, being the most common ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid. We highlight the use of epoxy resins as adhesive, consolidant and filler, as well as the acrylic resin Paraloid B-72, identified as reversible, colorless, stable and inert. This survey and analysis of the bibliography reveals the need to implement common intervention methodologies dedicated to this material.
 Tatton-Brown, V.; Andrews, C., ‘Before the invention of Glassblowing’, in Five Thousand Years of Glass, ed. H. Tait, British Museum Press (2004).
 Zerwick, C., A Short History Of Glass, 2ª ed., Harry N. Abrams in association with The Corning Museum of Glass, New York (1990).
 Sease, C., A conservation Manual for the Field Archaeologist, 3ª ed., Archaeological Research Tools, Volume 4, Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles (1994).
 Guichen, G. de, ‘Object Interred, Object Disinterred’, in Conservation on Archaeological Excavations, ed. N. Stanley-price, ICCROM, Rome (1995) 21-28.
 Tubb, K. W.; Cronyn, J. M.; Sease, C., ‘The Elements of Archaeological Conservation’, Studies in Conservation 36 (1991), 250-251, https://doi.org/10.2307/1506325.
 Colomban, P., ‘Non-Destructive Raman Analysis of Ancient Glasses and Glazes’ in Modern Methods for Analysing Archaeological and Historical Glass Modern Methods for Analysing Archaeological and Historical Glass, ed. K. Janssens, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (2013) 275-300.
 Perovic, S., ‘The museum of ancient glass in Zadar (Croatia)’, in Glass & Ceramics Conservation, ed. H. Roemich, Interim Meeting of the ICOM-CC Working group, ICOM-CC, Corning, New York, USA (2010) 75-81.
 Davison, S., Conservation and Restoration of Glass, 2ª ed., Elsevier Ltd (2006).
 Fontaine-Hodiamont, C., ‘Antique Glass: Principles of Conservation, Displaying and Maintenance’, in Vade mecum for the protection and maintenance of cultural heritage, Institut Royal du Patrimoine artistique (IRPA), Koninklijk Instituut voor het Kunstpa- trimonium (KIK), Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage (KIK-IRPA), Brussels (2019).
 Koob, S. P., Conservation and Care of Glass Objects, Archetype Publications in association with The Corning Museum of Glass, London (2006).
 Feller, R. L., Research in conservation: Accelerated Aging Photochemical and Thermal Aspects, The Getty Conservation Institute, USA (1994).
 Davison, S., ‘A review of adhesives and consolidants used on glass antiquities’, Studies in Conservation 29(sup1) (1984) 191-194, https://doi.org/10.1179/sic.1984.29.Supplement-1.191.
 Davison, S., ‘A history of joining glass fragments’, in Holding it all Together: ancient and modern approaches to joining, repair and consolidation, Archetype Publications in association with the British Museum, London (2009) 107-112.
 Sease, C., ‘The Case against Using Soluble Nylon in Conservation’, Studies in Conservation 26(3) (1981) 102-110, https://doi.org/10.2307/1505851.
 Vos-Davidse, L., ‘Note on the reversible gluing of broken glass objects’, Studies in Conservation 14(4) (1969) 183-183.
 Madsen, H. B., ‘A New Product for Mending Glass’, Studies in Conservation 17(3) (1972) 131-132.
 Moncrieff, A., ‘Problems and Potentialities in the Conservation of Vitreous Materials’, Studies in Conservation 20(sup1) (1975) 99-104, https://doi.org/10.1179/sic.1975.s1.017.
 Pearson, C., ‘On-site conservation requirements for marine archaeological excavations’, The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 6(1) (1977) 37-46, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-9270.1977.tb00986.x.
 Roberts, J., ‘Acrylic colloidal dispersions as pre-consolidants for waterlogged archaeological glass’, in Preprints of the ICOM-CC 7th Triennial Meeting, The International Council of Museums in association with the J. Paul Getty Trust, ICOM, Copenhagen, Denmark (1984) 20-21.
 Delgado, J., Restoring Medieval Stained-Glass Transparency : Use of New Task Specific Luminescent Ionic Liquids for Corrosion Crusts Removal, Dissertação de Doutoramento em Conservação e Restauro do Património Especialidade em Ciências da Conservação, Departamento de Conservação e Restauro, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa (2016)
 Ablum, A., Estudo da Aplicação de Adesivos de Cura UV em Conservação e Restauro de Vidro e Vitral, Dissertação de Mestrado em Conservação e Restauro, Departamento de Conservação e Restauro, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa (2015).
 22 Celorico, M. I. M., Preenchendo lacunas: estudo de colorantes para resinas epoxídicas utilizados na conservação e restauro de vidro, Dissertação de Mestrado em Conservação e Restauro, Departamento de Conservação e Restauro, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa (2018).
 Lîbiete, D., ‘Conservation of the Daugmale Castle Mound Beads’, in Glass, Ceramics and Related Materials: Interim Meeting of the ICOM-CC Working Group, ed. A. Paterakis, EVTEK Institute of Arts and Design, Vantaa, Finland (1998) 199-200.
 Neumann, T. W.; Sanford, R. M., ‘Cleaning Artifacts with Calgon’, American Antiquity 63(1) (1998) 157-160, https://doi.org/10.2307/2694782.
 Koob, S. P., ‘New techniques for the repair and restoration of ancient glass’, Studies in Conservation 45(sup1) (2000) 92-95, https://doi.org/10.1179/sic.2000.45.Supplement-1.92.
 Smith, C. Wayne, Archaeological Conservation Using Polymers – Practical Applications for Organic Artifact Stabilization, Texas A&M University Anthropology Series 6, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas (2003).
 Abd-Allah, R.; El-Khouri, L., ‘In Situ glass conservation: A Case Study from the Archaeological Site of Barsinia’, Adumayu 16(July) (2007) 25-36, https://www.academia.edu/5334669/In_Situ_Glass_Conservation_A_case_Study_from_the_Archaeological_Site_of_Barsinia_Jordan (acesso em 2021-03-30).
 Terreni, L. G., ‘Le problematiche conservative del vetro antico proveniente da scavi archeologici’, Milliarium 8 (2008) 34-47, http://www.milliarium.it/web/le-problematiche-conservative-del-vetro-proveniente-da-scavi/ (acesso em 13/05/2021).
 Altavilla, C.; Ciliberto, E.; La Delfa, S.; Panarello, S.; Scandurra, A., ‘The cleaning of early glasses: investigation about the reactivity of different chemical treatments on the surface of ancient glasses’, Applied Physics A Materials Science & Processing 92 (2008) 251-255, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00339-008-4499-x.
 Tennent, N. H.; Koob, S. P., ‘An Assessment of Polymers Used in Conservation Treatments at The Corning Museum of Glass’, in Proceedings of the Interim Meeting of the ICOM-CC Glass & Ceramics Working Group, ed. H. Roemich, ICOM Committee for Conservation in association with The Corning Museum of Class, Corning, New York, USA (2010) 100-109.
 Mardikian, P.; Girard, P., ‘18 Tons of Roman Glass under the Sea: A Complex Conservation Puzzle’, in Proceedings of the Interim Meeting of the ICOM-CC Glass & Ceramics Working Group, ed. H. Roemich, ICOM Committee for Conservation in association with The Corning Museum of Class, Corning, New York, USA (2010) 110-118.
 Elnaggar, A.; Mohamed, H.; Mahgoub, G.; Fouad, M., ‘Laser Cleaning of Excavated Greco-Roman Glass: Removal of Burial Encrustation and Corrosion Products’, Studies in Conservation 55(sup2) (2010) 80-84, https://doi.org/10.1179/sic.2010.55.Supplement-2.80.
 Martínez, B.; Pasíes, T.; Peiró, M. A., ‘Reversibility and minimal intervention in the ap-filling process of archaeological glass’, e-conservation the online magazine 20(Jul) (2011) 41-54. https://www.slideshare.net/trosa/reversibility-and-minimal-intervention-in-the-gap-filling-process-of-archaeological-glass-por-betlem-martnez-trinidad-pases-y-m-amparo-peir-en-econservation-n-20-2011-pp-4054 (acesso em 13/05/2021).
 Viduka, A. J., Unit 11 Conservation and Finds Handling, UNESCO, Bangkok (2012) http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CLT/images/630X300/UNIT11.pdf (acesso em 13/05/2021).
 Abd-allah, R., ‘Chemical cleaning of soiled deposits and encrustations on archaeological glass : A diagnostic and practical study’, Journal of Cultural Heritage 14(2) (2013) 97-108, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2012.03.010.
 van Giffen, N. A. R.; Koob, S. P.; O’Hern, R., ‘New Developments for Casting ParaloidTM B-72 for Filling Losses in Glass’, in Recent advances in Glass, Stain-Glass, and Ceramics Conservation, ed. H. Roemich K. van L. Campagne, ICOM-CC Glass and Ceramics Working Group Interim Meeting and Forum of the International Scientific Committee for the Conservation of Stained Glass (Corpus Vitrearum-ICOMOS), Amsterdam, Netherlands (2013) 53-60.
 Barack, S., ‘3D Printing and Fills on Glass Vessels: A Case Study from the Fraunces Tavern Museum’, in Recent advances in Glass and Ceramics , ed. H. Roemich L. Fair, International Council of Museums, Committee for Conservation (ICOM-CC) (2016) 197-204.
 Díaz-Marín, C.; Aura-Castro, E., ‘Creación de implantes 3D en procesos de onservación y restauración de vidrio arqueológico’, Virtual Archaeology Review 8(16) (2017) 103-109.
 Coutinho, I.; Ramos, A. M.; Lima, A. M.; Fernandes, F. B., ‘Studies of the degradation of epoxy resins used for the conservation of glass’, in Conference Proceedings Holding it all together, ancient and modern approaches to joining, repair and consolidation, London, England (2008) 127-133, https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.2799.3124.
How to Cite
This work is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC 4.0) which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium following no commercial or derivatives, provided the original author and source are credited.
Copyright remains with the authors.